Laravel 小技巧

本文节选自50分钟学会Laravel 50个小技巧,有修改。针对Laravel 5.1 版本。

一共分为8篇

Model 篇

  1. model自动检验字段合法性

     class User extends Eloquent
     {
         public static $autoValidate = true;
         protected static $rules = [
             'email' => 'required|between:6,255|email|unique:backend_users',
             'login' => 'required|between:2,255|unique:backend_users',
             'password' => 'required:create|between:4,255|confirmed',
             'password_confirmation' => 'required_with:password|between:4,255'
         ];
        
         protected static function boot()
         {
             parent::boot();
             // You can also replace this with static::creating or static::updating
             static::saving(function ($model) {
                 if($model::$autoValidate) {
        
                     return $model->validate();
                 }
             });
         }
        
         public function validate() { }
     }
    
  2. 用trait创建通用方法

     trait CrudTrait
     {
         /**
          * 创建实例
          *
          * @author kelvinblood <admin@kelu.org>
          * @param array $array
          * @return mixed
          */
         public static function createInstance(Array $array)
         {
             $className = get_called_class();
             $newClass = new $className();
             foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
                 $newClass->$key = $value;
             }
             $newClass->save();
    
             return $className::find($newClass->uuid);
         }
     }
    
  3. uuid作为主键

      use Ramsey\Uuid\Uuid;
         
      trait UUIDModel
      {
          public $incrementing = false;
          protected static function boot()
          {
              parent::boot();
              static::creating(function ($model) {
                  $key = $model->getKeyName();
                  if(empty($model->{$key})) {
                      $model->{$key} = (string)$model->generateNewId();
                  }
              });
          }
    
          public function generateNewUuid()
          {
              return Uuid::uuid4();
          }
      }
    
  4. 简单的加减数字

    这样就可以省去读取、赋值和 save 操作了。

     $customer = Customer::find($customer_id);
     $loyalty_points = $customer->loyalty_points + 50;
     $customer->update(['loyalty_points' => $loyalty_points]);
        
     // adds one loyalty point
        
     Customer::find($customer_id)->increment('loyalty_points', 50);
     // subtracts one loyalty point
        
     Customer::find($customer_id)->decrement('loyalty_points', 50);
    
  5. 为model添加多余字段

    嗯,这个方法算是取巧,也很实用。

     function getFullNameAttribute()
     {
         return $this->first_name . ' ' . $this->last_name;
     }
    
  6. 保存model时返回关系

     public function store()
     {
         $post = new Post;
         $post->fill(Input::all());
         $post->user_id = Auth::user()->user_id;
         $post->user;
         return $post->save();
      }
    
  7. 同时新建model和migration.

      php artisan make:model Books -m
    

Eloquent ORM 篇

  1. 有条件的关联关系

     class myModel extents Model
     {
          public function category()
          {
          return $this->belongsTo('myCategoryModel', 'categories_id')->where('users_id', Auth::user()->id);
          }
     }
    
  2. 可排序的关联关系

     class Category extends Model
      {
          public function products()
          {
              return $this->hasMany('App\Product')->orderBy('name');
          }
      }        
    
  3. 仅显示关联关系存在的数据

      class Category extends Model
      {
          public function products()
          {
              return $this->hasMany('App\Product');
          }
      }
         
      public function getIndex()
      {
          $categories = Category::with('products')->has('products')->get();
          return view('categories.index', compact('categories'));
      }
    
  4. Where的语法表达式

    真是够奇葩的,呵呵ε=(・д・`*)ハァ…

     $products = Product::where('category', '=', 3)->get();
     $products = Product::where('category', 3)->get();
     $products = Product::whereCategory(3)->get();        
    
  5. Query Builder 的 havingRaw 方法

     SELECT *, COUNT(*) FROM products GROUP BY category_id HAVING count(*) > 1;
        
     DB::table('products')
         ->select('*', DB::raw('COUNT(*) as products_count'))
         ->groupBy('category_id')
         ->having('products_count', '>', 1)
         ->get();
     Product::groupBy('category_id')->havingRaw('COUNT(*) > 1')->get();
    
  6. 日期筛选

     $q->whereDate('created_at', date('Y-m-d'));
     $q->whereDay('created_at', date('d'));
     $q->whereMonth('created_at', date('m'));
     $q->whereYear('created_at', date('Y'));
    
  7. 随机取数据

     $questions = Question::orderByRaw('RAND()')->take(10)->get();        
    
  8. 只取特定字段lists

    $employees = Employee::where('branch_id', 9)->get()->lists('full_name', 'id');
    

Blade 篇

  1. 获取数组首尾的元素

     //hide all but the first item
     @foreach ($menu as $item)
     <div @if ($item != reset($menu)) class="hidden" @endif>
     <h2>\{\{ $item->title }}</h2>
          </div>
     @endforeach
    
      //apply css to last item only
      @foreach ($menu as $item)
     <div @if ($item == end($menu)) class="no_margin" @endif> 
     <h2>\{\{ $item->title }}</h2>
      </div>
     @endforeach
    
  2. 自定义错误页面

     <?php 
     namespace App\Exceptions; 
     use Exception; 
     use Illuminate\Foundation\Exceptions\Handler as ExceptionHandler; 
     use Symfony\Component\Debug\ExceptionHandler as SymfonyDisplayer; 
     class Handler extends ExceptionHandler { 
         protected function convertExceptionToResponse(Exception $e) {
             $debug = config('app.debug', false); 
             if($debug) { 
                 return (new SymfonyDisplayer($debug))->createResponse($e);
             }
        
             return response()->view('errors.default', ['exception' => $e], 500);
         }
     }
    

集合篇

  1. 集合筛选

     $customers = Customer::all();
     $us_customers = $customers->filter(function ($customer) {
         return $customer->country == 'United States';
     });
        
     $non_uk_customers = $customers->reject(function ($customer) {
         return $customer->country == 'United Kingdom';
     });
    
  2. find,where

     $collection = App\Person::find([1, 2, 3]);
     $collection = App\Person::all();
     $programmers = $collection->where('type', 'programmer');
     $critic = $collection->where('type', 'critic');
     $engineer = $collection->where('type', 'engineer');
    
  3. closures排序

     $collection = collect([
         ['name' => 'Desk'],
         ['name' => 'Chair'],
         ['name' => 'Bookcase']
     ]);
    
     $sorted = $collection->sortBy(function ($product, $key) {
         return array_search($product['name'], [1 => 'Bookcase', 2 => 'Desk', 3 => 'Chair']);
     });
    
  4. 提取数组的值作为键

     $library = $books->keyBy('title');
        
     [
         'Lean Startup' => ['title' => 'Lean Startup', 'price' => 10],
         'The One Thing' => ['title' => 'The One Thing', 'price' => 15],
         'Laravel: Code Bright' => ['title' => 'Laravel: Code Bright', 'price' => 20],
         'The 4-Hour Work Week' => ['title' => 'The 4-Hour Work Week', 'price' => 5],
     ]
    
  5. collection unions

    没明白。

     // the point is to actually combine results from different models
     $programmers = \App\Person::where('type', 'programmer')->get();
     $critic = \App\Person::where('type', 'critic')->get();
     $engineer = \App\Person::where('type', 'engineer')->get();
    
     $collection = new Collection;
    
     $all = $collection->merge($programmers)->merge($critic)->merge($engineer);
    
  6. collection lookaheads

    没明白。

     $collection = collect([1 => 11, 5 => 13, 12 => 14, 21 => 15])->getCachingIterator();
     foreach ($collection as $key => $value) {
         dump($collection->current() . ':' . $collection->getInnerIterator()->current());
     }
    

中间件/服务篇

  1. 共享cookies

     // app/Http/Middleware/EncryptCookies.php
     protected $except = [
         'shared_cookie'
        
     ];
        
     Cookie::queue('shared_cookie', 'my_shared_value', 10080, null, '.example.com');
    
  2. 有条件的Provider

     // app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php
     public function register()
     {
         $this->app->bind('Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\Registrar', 'App\Services\Registrar');
        
         if($this->app->environment('production')) {
             $this->app->register('App\Providers\ProductionErrorHandlerServiceProvider');
         } else {
             $this->app->register('App\Providers\VerboseErrorHandlerServiceProvider');
         }
     }
    

路由篇

  1. 嵌套路由

     Route::group(['prefix' => 'account', 'as' => 'account.'], function () {
        
         Route::get('login', ['as' => 'login', 'uses' => 'AccountController@getLogin']);
         Route::get('register', ['as' => 'register', 'uses' => 'AccountController@getRegister']);
        
         Route::group(['middleware' => 'auth'], function () {
             Route::get('edit', ['as' => 'edit', 'uses' => 'AccountController@getEdit']);
         });
        
     });
        
     <a href="\{\{ route('account.login') }}">Login</a>`
     <a href="\{\{ route('account.register') }}">Register</a>`
     <a href="\{\{ route('account.edit') }}">Edit Account</a>`
    
  2. 匹配所有路由

     // app/Http/routes.php
        
     Route::group(['middleware' => 'auth'], function () {
         Route::get('{view}', function ($view) {
             try {
                 return view($view);
             } catch (\Exception $e) {
                 abort(404);
             }
         })->where('view', '.*');
     });
    

其他篇

  1. Model支持多语言

     // database/migrations/create_articles_table.php
     public function up()
     {
       Schema::create('articles', function (Blueprint $table) {
           $table->increments('id');
           $table->boolean('online');
           $table->timestamps();
       });
     }
    
     //database/migrations/create_articles_table.php
     public function up()
     {
       $table->increments('id');
       $table->integer('article_id')->unsigned();
       $table->string('locale')->index();
       $table->string('name');
       $table->text('text');
       $table->unique(['article_id', 'locale']);
       $table->foreign('article_id')->references('id')->on('articles')->onDelete('cascade');
    
     }
    
     // app/Article.php
     class Article extends Model
     {
       use \Dimsav\Translatable\Translatable;
       public $translatedAttributes = ['name', 'text'];
     }
    
     // app/ArticleTranslation.php
     class ArticleTranslation extends Model
     {
       public $timestamps = false;
     }
    
     // app/http/routes.php
    
     Route::get('{locale}', function ($locale) {
       app()->setLocale($locale);
       $article = Article::first();
       return view('article')->with(compact('article'));
     });
    
     // resources/views/article.blade.php
    
     <h1>\{\{ $article->name }}</h1>
    
     \{\{ $article->text }}        
    
  2. 定时清理日志

     $schedule->call(function () {
         Storage::delete($logfile);
     })->weekly();
    
  3. pipeling

     $result = (new Illuminate\Pipeline\Pipeline($container)
         ->send($something)
         ->through('ClassOne', 'ClassTwo', 'ClassThree')
         ->then(function ($something) {
             return 'foo';
         });
    

测试篇

  1. 环境变量

     // phpunit.xml
        
     <php>
         <env name="APP_ENV" value="testing"/>
         <env name="CACHE_DRIVER" value="array"/>
         <env name="SESSION_DRIVER" value="array"/>
         <env name="QUEUE_DRIVER" value="sync"/>
         <env name="DB_DATABASE" value=":memory:"/>
         <env name="DB_CONNECTION" value="sqlite"/>
         <env name="TWILIO_FROM_NUMBER" value="+15005550006"/>
     </php>
        
        
     //	.env.test – add to .gitignore
     TWILIO_ACCOUNT_SID = fillmein
     TWILIO_ACCOUNT_TOKEN = fillmein
        
        
     //	access directly from your tests using helper function
     env('TWILIO_ACCOUNT_TOKEN');
        
        
      // tests/TestCase.php 
      <?php 
      class TestCase extends Illuminate\Foundation\Testing\TestCase { 
         
      /** 
      * The base URL to use while testing the application. 
      * 
      * @var string 
      */ 
      protected $baseUrl = 'http://localhost'; 
      /** 
      * Creates the application. 
      * 
      * @return \Illuminate\Foundation\Application 
      */ 
      public function createApplication() { 
          $app = require __DIR__ . '/../bootstrap/app.php';
          if(file_exists(dirname(__DIR__) . '/.env.test')) {
             Dotenv::load(dirname(__DIR__), '.env.test'); 
          } 
             
          $app->make(Illuminate\Contracts\Console\Kernel::class)->bootstrap();
                     
          return $app;
      }   }
    
  2. 自动测试

     // gulpfile.js
    
      var elixir = require('laravel-elixir');
    
      mix.phpUnit();
    
      $ gulp tdd
    

参考资料


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几个 IntelliJ IDEA 小技巧 普天之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王臣。 - 孟子万章